Co-management has been loosely defined as a transfer of decision-making authority to non-traditional actors in the process of natural resource management. Most co-management agreements have been developed in the context of land claim agreements in the Territories. Co-management has not been utilized to any great extent in the provinces. This can be traced to a lack of clarification of rights held by First Nations to land and resources off-reserve. Nevertheless, co-management terminology and theory are increasingly being cited outside of land claims, within a provincial resource management context. Co-management is not possible under present circumstances within the provinces. Without a drastic change in the relationship between First Nations and the provincial and federal governments, co-management is simply an empty promise. In the absence of equal rights of participation gained through rights to land off-reserve, co-management cannot be realized.